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List of Periodic Table Elements Sorted by Year of discovery

Click a column title, such as Symbol, to sort the table by that item. SEE Notes at the bottom of the Table.

Name Sym. M.P.
crust (%)*
Group* Electron
energy (eV)
1530.9738PhosphorusP44.0280.01.820.13166915[Ne] 3s2 3p310.4867
2758.9332CobaltCo1,495.002,870.008.917359[Ar] 3d7 4s27.881
78195.078PlatinumPt1,772.003,827.0021.45173510[Xe] 4f14 5d9 6s18.9587
2858.6934NickelNi1,453.002,732.008.90.02175110[Ar] 3d8 4s27.6398
1224.305MagnesiumMg639.01,090.001.742.0817552[Ne] 3s27.6462
714.0067NitrogenN-210.0-196.01.25177215[He] 2s2 2p314.5341
815.9994OxygenO-218.0-183.01.4346.71177416[He] 2s2 2p413.6181
1735.453ChlorineCl-101.0-[Ne] 3s2 3p512.9676
2554.938ManganeseMn1,245.001,962.007.430.0917747[Ar] 3d5 4s27.434
4295.94MolybdenumMo2,617.004,612.0010.2217816[Kr] 4d5 5s17.0924
52127.6TelluriumTe449.0990.06.24178316[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p49.0096
74183.84TungstenW3,410.005,660.0019.3517836[Xe] 4f14 5d4 6s27.864
4091.224ZirconiumZr1,852.004,377.006.510.0317894[Kr] 4d2 5s26.6339
92238.0289UraniumU1,132.003,818.0018.951789102[Rn] 5f3 6d1 7s26.1941
3887.62StrontiumSr769.01,384.002.5417902[Kr] 5s25.6949
2247.867TitaniumTi1,660.003,287.004.540.6217914[Ar] 3d2 4s26.8281
3988.9059YttriumY1,523.003,337.004.4717943[Kr] 4d1 5s26.2173
49.0122BerylliumBe1,278.002,970.001.8517972[He] 2s29.3227
2451.9961ChromiumCr1,857.002,672.007.190.0417976[Ar] 3d5 4s16.7665
4192.9064NiobiumNb2,468.004,927.008.5718015[Kr] 4d4 5s16.7589
73180.9479TantalumTa2,996.005,425.0016.6518025[Xe] 4f14 5d3 6s27.5496
45102.9055RhodiumRh1,966.003,727.0012.4118039[Kr] 4d8 5s17.4589
46106.42PalladiumPd1,552.002,927.0012.02180310[Kr] 4d108.3369
58140.116CeriumCe795.03,257.006.771803101[Xe] 4f1 5d1 6s25.5387
76190.23OsmiumOs3,045.005,027.0022.618038[Xe] 4f14 5d6 6s28.4382
77192.217IridiumIr2,410.004,527.0022.418039[Xe] 4f14 5d7 6s28.967
1122.9897SodiumNa98.0883.00.972.7518071[Ne] 3s15.1391
1939.0983PotassiumK64.0774.00.862.5818071[Ar] 4s14.3407
510.811BoronB2,300.002,550.002.34180813[He] 2s2 2p18.298
2040.078CalciumCa839.01,484.001.553.6518082[Ar] 4s26.1132
56137.327BariumBa725.01,140.003.590.0518082[Xe] 6s25.2117
53126.9045IodineI114.0184.04.93181117[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p510.4513
36.941LithiumLi180.01,347.000.5318171[He] 2s15.3917
3478.96SeleniumSe217.0685.04.79181716[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p49.7524
48112.411CadmiumCd321.0765.08.65181712[Kr] 4d10 5s28.9938
1428.0855SiliconSi1,410.002,355.002.3327.69182414[Ne] 3s2 3p28.1517
1326.9815AluminumAl660.02,467.002.78.07182513[Ne] 3s2 3p15.9858
3579.904BromineBr-[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p511.8138
90232.0381ThoriumTh1,750.004,790.0011.721829102[Rn] 6d2 7s26.3067
2350.9415VanadiumV1,890.003,380.006.1118305[Ar] 3d3 4s26.7462
57138.9055LanthanumLa920.03,469.006.1518393[Xe] 5d1 6s25.5769
68167.259ErbiumEr1,522.002,510.009.071842101[Xe] 4f12 6s26.1077
65158.9253TerbiumTb1,360.003,041.008.231843101[Xe] 4f9 6s25.8638
44101.07RutheniumRu2,250.003,900.0012.3718448[Kr] 4d7 5s17.3605
55132.9055CesiumCs29.0678.01.8718601[Xe] 6s13.8939
3785.4678RubidiumRb39.0688.01.6318611[Kr] 5s14.1771
81204.3833ThalliumTl303.01,457.0011.85186113[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p16.1082
49114.818IndiumIn157.02,000.007.31186313[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p15.7864
67164.9303HolmiumHo1,470.002,720.008.81867101[Xe] 4f11 6s26.0215
3169.723GalliumGa30.02,403.005.91187513[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p15.9993
70173.04YtterbiumYb824.01,466.006.91878101[Xe] 4f14 6s26.2542
2144.9559ScandiumSc1,539.002,832.002.9918793[Ar] 3d1 4s26.5615
62150.36SamariumSm1,072.001,900.007.521879101[Xe] 4f6 6s25.6437
69168.9342ThuliumTm1,545.001,727.009.321879101[Xe] 4f13 6s26.1843
64157.25GadoliniumGd1,311.003,233.007.91880101[Xe] 4f7 5d1 6s26.1501
59140.9077PraseodymiumPr935.03,127.006.771885101[Xe] 4f3 6s25.473
60144.24NeodymiumNd1,010.003,127.007.011885101[Xe] 4f4 6s25.525
918.9984FluorineF-220.0-[He] 2s2 2p517.4228
3272.64GermaniumGe937.02,830.005.32188614[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p27.8994
66162.5DysprosiumDy1,412.002,562.008.551886101[Xe] 4f10 6s25.9389
1839.948ArgonAr-189.0-186.01.78189418[Ne] 3s2 3p615.7596
1020.1797NeonNe-249.0-246.00.9189818[He] 2s2 2p621.5645
3683.8KryptonKr-157.0-153.03.75189818[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p613.9996
54131.293XenonXe-112.0-108.05.9189818[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p612.1298
84*209.0PoloniumPo254.0962.09.3189816[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p48.417
88*226.0RadiumRa700.01,737.005.518982[Rn] 7s25.2784
89*227.0ActiniumAc1,050.003,200.0010.0718993[Rn] 6d1 7s25.17
86*222.0RadonRn-71.0-62.09.73190018[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p610.7485
63151.964EuropiumEu822.01,597.005.241901101[Xe] 4f7 6s25.6704
71174.967LutetiumLu1,656.003,315.009.841907101[Xe] 4f14 5d1 6s25.4259
91231.0359ProtactiniumPa1,568.0015.41913102[Rn] 5f2 6d1 7s25.89
72178.49HafniumHf2,150.005,400.0013.3119234[Xe] 4f14 5d2 6s26.8251
75186.207RheniumRe3,180.005,627.0021.0419257[Xe] 4f14 5d5 6s27.8335
43*98.0TechnetiumTc2,200.004,877.0011.519377[Kr] 4d5 5s27.28
87*223.0FranciumFr27.0677.019391[Rn] 7s14.0727
85*210.0AstatineAt302.0337.0194017[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p59.3
93*237.0NeptuniumNp640.03,902.0020.21940102[Rn] 5f4 6d1 7s26.2657
94*244.0PlutoniumPu640.03,235.0019.841940102[Rn] 5f6 7s26.0262
95*243.0AmericiumAm994.02,607.0013.671944102[Rn] 5f7 7s25.9738
61*145.0PromethiumPm1,100.003,000.007.31945101[Xe] 4f5 6s25.582
612.0107CarbonC3,500.004,827.002.260.09ancient14[He] 2s2 2p211.2603
1632.065SulfurS113.0445.02.070.05ancient16[Ne] 3s2 3p410.36
2655.845IronFe1,535.002,750.007.875.05ancient8[Ar] 3d6 4s27.9024
2963.546CopperCu1,083.002,567.008.96ancient11[Ar] 3d10 4s17.7264
3065.39ZincZn420.0907.07.13ancient12[Ar] 3d10 4s29.3942
3374.9216ArsenicAs81.0613.05.72ancient15[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p39.7886
47107.8682SilverAg962.02,212.0010.5ancient11[Kr] 4d10 5s17.5762
50118.71TinSn232.02,270.007.31ancient14[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p27.3439
51121.76AntimonySb630.01,750.006.68ancient15[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p38.6084
79196.9665GoldAu1,064.002,807.0019.32ancient11[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s19.2255
80200.59MercuryHg-39.0357.013.55ancient12[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s210.4375
82207.2LeadPb327.01,740.0011.35ancient14[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p27.4167
83208.9804BismuthBi271.01,560.009.75ancient15[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p37.2856
Name Sym. M.P.
crust (%)*
Group* Electron
energy (eV)

• Density of elements with boiling points below 0°C is given in g/l and in sorted list they are shown before other elements with boling point >0°C.
• Earth crust composition average values are from a report by F. W. Clarke and H. S. Washington, 1924. Elemental composition of crustal rocks differ between different localities (see article).
• Group: There are only 18 groups in the periodic table that constitute the columns of the table. Lanthanoids and Actinoids are numbered as 101 and 102 to separate them in sorting by group.

Abbreviations and Definitions:
No. - Atomic Number
M.P. - melting point
B.P. - boiling point

Atomic number: The number of protons in an atom. Each element is uniquely defined by its atomic number.

Atomic mass: The mass of an atom is primarily determined by the number of protons and neutrons in its nucleus. Atomic mass is measured in Atomic Mass Units (amu) which are scaled relative to carbon, 12C, that is taken as a standard element with an atomic mass of 12. This isotope of carbon has 6 protons and 6 neutrons. Thus, each proton and neutron has a mass of about 1 amu.

Isotope: Atoms of the same element with the same atomic number, but different number of neutrons. Isotope of an element is defined by the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in its nucleus. Elements have more than one isotope with varying numbers of neutrons. For example, there are two common isotopes of carbon, 12C and 13C which have 6 and 7 neutrons respectively. The abundances of different isotopes of elements vary in nature depending on the source of materials. For relative abundances of isotopes in nature see reference on Atomic Weights and Isotopic Compositions.

Atomic weight: Atomic weight values represent weighted average of the masses of all naturally occurring isotopes of an element. The values shown here are based on the IUPAC Commission determinations (Pure Appl. Chem. 73:667-683, 2001). The elements marked with an asterisk have no stable nuclides. For these elements the weight value shown represents the mass number of the longest-lived isotope of the element.

Electron configuration: The distribution of electrons according to the energy sublevels (subshells) in uncharged atoms. The noble gas shown in square brackets (e.g. [He]), marks that all the subshells associated with that element are fully occupied by electrons.

Energy levels and sublevels
Principal energy level
(Quantum number: n)
Sublevels available
(Quantum number: l)
2s 2p
3s 3p 3d
4s 4p 4d 4f
5s 5p 5d 5f 5g
6s 6p 6d 6f 6g 6h

Ionization energy (IE): The energy required to remove the outermost electron from an atom or a positive ion in its ground level. The table lists only the first IE in eV units. To convert to kJ/mol multiply by 96.4869. Reference: NIST Reference Table on Ground states and ionization energies for the neutral atoms. IE decreases going down a column of the periodic table, and increases from left to right in a row. Thus, alkali metals have the lowest IE in a period and Rare gases have the highest.

Other resources related to the Periodic Table