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Chemistry : List of Periodic Table Elements Sorted by: Abundance in Earth's crust

Click a column title, such as Name, to sort the table by that item.
SEE Notes at the bottom of the Table.

Name Sym. M.P.
crust (%)*
Group* Electron
energy (eV)
2858.693NickelNi1,4532,7328.900.02175110[Ar] 3d8 4s27.64
918.998FluorineF-220-1881.700.03188617[He] 2s2 2p517.42
4091.224ZirconiumZr1,8524,3776.510.0317894[Kr] 4d2 5s26.63
2451.996ChromiumCr1,8572,6727.190.0417976[Ar] 3d5 4s16.77
1632.065SulfurS1134452.070.05ancient16[Ne] 3s2 3p410.36
1735.453ChlorineCl-101-353.210.05177417[Ne] 3s2 3p512.97
56137.327BariumBa7251,1403.590.0518082[Xe] 6s25.21
612.011CarbonC3,5004,8272.260.09ancient14[He] 2s2 2p211.26
2554.938ManganeseMn1,2451,9627.430.0917747[Ar] 3d5 4s27.43
1530.974PhosphorusP442801.820.13166915[Ne] 3s2 3p310.49
2247.867TitaniumTi1,6603,2874.540.6217914[Ar] 3d2 4s26.83
1224.305MagnesiumMg6391,0901.742.0817552[Ne] 3s27.65
1939.098PotassiumK647740.862.5818071[Ar] 4s14.34
1122.990SodiumNa988830.972.7518071[Ne] 3s15.14
2040.078CalciumCa8391,4841.553.6518082[Ar] 4s26.11
2655.845IronFe1,5352,7507.875.05ancient8[Ar] 3d6 4s27.90
1326.982AluminumAl6602,4672.708.07182513[Ne] 3s2 3p15.99
1428.086SiliconSi1,4102,3552.3327.69182414[Ne] 3s2 3p28.15
815.999OxygenO-218-1831.4346.71177416[He] 2s2 2p413.62
36.941LithiumLi1801,3470.5318171[He] 2s15.39
49.012BerylliumBe1,2782,9701.8517972[He] 2s29.32
510.811BoronB2,3002,5502.34180813[He] 2s2 2p18.30
714.007NitrogenN-210-1961.25177215[He] 2s2 2p314.53
1020.180NeonNe-249-2460.90189818[He] 2s2 2p621.56
1839.948ArgonAr-189-1861.78189418[Ne] 3s2 3p615.76
2144.956ScandiumSc1,5392,8322.9918793[Ar] 3d1 4s26.56
2350.942VanadiumV1,8903,3806.1118305[Ar] 3d3 4s26.75
2758.933CobaltCo1,4952,8708.9017359[Ar] 3d7 4s27.88
2963.546CopperCu1,0832,5678.96ancient11[Ar] 3d10 4s17.73
3065.390ZincZn4209077.13ancient12[Ar] 3d10 4s29.39
3169.723GalliumGa302,4035.91187513[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p16.00
3272.640GermaniumGe9372,8305.32188614[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p27.90
3374.922ArsenicAs816135.72ancient15[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p39.79
3478.960SeleniumSe2176854.79181716[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p49.75
3579.904BromineBr-7593.12182617[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p511.81
3683.800KryptonKr-157-1533.75189818[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p614.00
3785.468RubidiumRb396881.6318611[Kr] 5s14.18
3887.620StrontiumSr7691,3842.5417902[Kr] 5s25.69
3988.906YttriumY1,5233,3374.4717943[Kr] 4d1 5s26.22
4192.906NiobiumNb2,4684,9278.5718015[Kr] 4d4 5s16.76
4295.940MolybdenumMo2,6174,61210.2217816[Kr] 4d5 5s17.09
43*98.000TechnetiumTc2,2004,87711.5019377[Kr] 4d5 5s27.28
44101.070RutheniumRu2,2503,90012.3718448[Kr] 4d7 5s17.36
45102.906RhodiumRh1,9663,72712.4118039[Kr] 4d8 5s17.46
46106.420PalladiumPd1,5522,92712.02180310[Kr] 4d108.34
47107.868SilverAg9622,21210.50ancient11[Kr] 4d10 5s17.58
48112.411CadmiumCd3217658.65181712[Kr] 4d10 5s28.99
49114.818IndiumIn1572,0007.31186313[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p15.79
50118.710TinSn2322,2707.31ancient14[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p27.34
51121.760AntimonySb6301,7506.68ancient15[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p38.61
52127.600TelluriumTe4499906.24178316[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p49.01
53126.905IodineI1141844.93181117[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p510.45
54131.293XenonXe-112-1085.90189818[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p612.13
55132.906CesiumCs296781.8718601[Xe] 6s13.89
57138.906LanthanumLa9203,4696.1518393[Xe] 5d1 6s25.58
58140.116CeriumCe7953,2576.771803101[Xe] 4f1 5d1 6s25.54
59140.908PraseodymiumPr9353,1276.771885101[Xe] 4f3 6s25.47
60144.240NeodymiumNd1,0103,1277.011885101[Xe] 4f4 6s25.53
61*145.000PromethiumPm1,1003,0007.301945101[Xe] 4f5 6s25.58
62150.360SamariumSm1,0721,9007.521879101[Xe] 4f6 6s25.64
63151.964EuropiumEu8221,5975.241901101[Xe] 4f7 6s25.67
64157.250GadoliniumGd1,3113,2337.901880101[Xe] 4f7 5d1 6s26.15
65158.925TerbiumTb1,3603,0418.231843101[Xe] 4f9 6s25.86
66162.500DysprosiumDy1,4122,5628.551886101[Xe] 4f10 6s25.94
67164.930HolmiumHo1,4702,7208.801867101[Xe] 4f11 6s26.02
68167.259ErbiumEr1,5222,5109.071842101[Xe] 4f12 6s26.11
69168.934ThuliumTm1,5451,7279.321879101[Xe] 4f13 6s26.18
70173.040YtterbiumYb8241,4666.901878101[Xe] 4f14 6s26.25
71174.967LutetiumLu1,6563,3159.841907101[Xe] 4f14 5d1 6s25.43
72178.490HafniumHf2,1505,40013.3119234[Xe] 4f14 5d2 6s26.83
73180.948TantalumTa2,9965,42516.6518025[Xe] 4f14 5d3 6s27.55
74183.840TungstenW3,4105,66019.3517836[Xe] 4f14 5d4 6s27.86
75186.207RheniumRe3,1805,62721.0419257[Xe] 4f14 5d5 6s27.83
76190.230OsmiumOs3,0455,02722.6018038[Xe] 4f14 5d6 6s28.44
77192.217IridiumIr2,4104,52722.4018039[Xe] 4f14 5d7 6s28.97
78195.078PlatinumPt1,7723,82721.45173510[Xe] 4f14 5d9 6s18.96
79196.967GoldAu1,0642,80719.32ancient11[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s19.23
80200.590MercuryHg-3935713.55ancient12[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s210.44
81204.383ThalliumTl3031,45711.85186113[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p16.11
82207.200LeadPb3271,74011.35ancient14[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p27.42
83208.980BismuthBi2711,5609.75ancient15[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p37.29
84*209.000PoloniumPo2549629.30189816[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p48.42
85*210.000AstatineAt3023370.00194017[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p59.30
86*222.000RadonRn-71-629.73190018[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p610.75
87*223.000FranciumFr276770.0019391[Rn] 7s14.07
88*226.000RadiumRa7001,7375.5018982[Rn] 7s25.28
89*227.000ActiniumAc1,0503,20010.0718993[Rn] 6d1 7s25.17
90232.038ThoriumTh1,7504,79011.721829102[Rn] 6d2 7s26.31
91231.036ProtactiniumPa1,568015.401913102[Rn] 5f2 6d1 7s25.89
92238.029UraniumU1,1323,81818.951789102[Rn] 5f3 6d1 7s26.19
93*237.000NeptuniumNp6403,90220.201940102[Rn] 5f4 6d1 7s26.27
94*244.000PlutoniumPu6403,23519.841940102[Rn] 5f6 7s26.03
95*243.000AmericiumAm9942,60713.671944102[Rn] 5f7 7s25.97
Name Sym. M.P.
crust (%)*
Group* Electron
energy (eV)

• Density of elements with boiling points below 0°C is given in g/l. In a sorted list these elements are shown before other elements that have boiling points >0°C.
• Earth crust composition average values are from a report by F. W. Clarke and H. S. Washington, 1924. Elemental composition of crustal rocks differ between different localities (see article).
• Group: There are only 18 groups in the periodic table that constitute the columns of the table. Lanthanoids and Actinoids are numbered as 101 and 102 to separate them in sorting by group.
• The elements marked with an asterisk (in the 2nd column) have no stable nuclides. For these elements the weight value shown represents the mass number of the longest-lived isotope of the element.

Abbreviations and Definitions:

No. - Atomic Number
M.P. - melting point
B.P. - boiling point

Atomic number: The number of protons in an atom. Each element is uniquely defined by its atomic number.

Atomic mass: The mass of an atom is primarily determined by the number of protons and neutrons in its nucleus. Atomic mass is measured in Atomic Mass Units (amu) which are scaled relative to carbon, 12C, that is taken as a standard element with an atomic mass of 12. This isotope of carbon has 6 protons and 6 neutrons. Thus, each proton and neutron has a mass of about 1 amu.

Isotope: Atoms of the same element with the same atomic number, but different number of neutrons. Isotope of an element is defined by the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in its nucleus. Elements have more than one isotope with varying numbers of neutrons. For example, there are two common isotopes of carbon, 12C and 13C which have 6 and 7 neutrons respectively. The abundances of different isotopes of elements vary in nature depending on the source of materials. For relative abundances of isotopes in nature see reference on Atomic Weights and Isotopic Compositions.

Atomic weight: Atomic weight values represent weighted average of the masses of all naturally occurring isotopes of an element. The values shown here are based on the IUPAC Commission determinations (Pure Appl. Chem. 73:667-683, 2001). The elements marked with an asterisk have no stable nuclides. For these elements the weight value shown represents the mass number of the longest-lived isotope of the element.

Electron configuration: The distribution of electrons according to the energy sublevels (subshells) in uncharged atoms. The noble gas shown in square brackets (e.g. [He]), marks that all the subshells associated with that element are fully occupied by electrons.

Energy levels and sublevels
Principal energy level
(Quantum number: n)
Sublevels available
(Quantum number: l)
2s 2p
3s 3p 3d
4s 4p 4d 4f
5s 5p 5d 5f 5g
6s 6p 6d 6f 6g 6h

Ionization energy (IE): The energy required to remove the outermost electron from an atom or a positive ion in its ground level. The table lists only the first IE in eV units. To convert to kJ/mol multiply by 96.4869. Reference: NIST Reference Table on Ground states and ionization energies for the neutral atoms. IE decreases going down a column of the periodic table, and increases from left to right in a row. Thus, alkali metals have the lowest IE in a period and Rare gases have the highest.

Other resources related to the Periodic Table